Effect of Structured Teaching and Demonstration on Knowledge regarding Basic Life Support among Higher Secondary Students

 

Jolly Joseph1, Alice N C2, Jeena Thomas3

1Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Thiruhrudaya College of Nursing, Kottayam, Kerala.

2Principal, Thiruhrudaya College of Nursing, Kottayam.

3Guest Lecturer, Department of Administration, Thiruhrudaya College of Nursing, Kottayam.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:  josephjolly775@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The present study was aimed to assess the effect of structured teaching and demonstration on knowledge regarding Basic Life Support among higher secondary students in selected school of Kottayam. The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge of higher Secondary students regarding Basic Life Support, determine the effect of structured teaching and demonstration programme on knowledge of higher secondary students regarding Basic Life Support and find the association between pretest knowledge of higher secondary students regarding Basic Life Support with selected socio-personnel variables. The study was conducted among 30 higher secondary students of M T Seminary Higher Secondary School, Kottayam. One group pre test and post test research design was used and subjects were selected by purposive sampling. The Socio-personal variables were used to assess the sample characteristics and structured knowledge questionnaire to assess the level of knowledge regarding Basic life Support. After the pre-test on the same day a structure teaching and demonstration was delivered and the post test was conducted on the seventh day using the same tools. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that the average pretest and post-test knowledge score was 11.4 and 20.9 respectively. The teaching programme was found to be effective in improving the knowledge (t = 13.69p< 0.05) regarding Basic Life Support. There was no significant association between pre-test knowledge of higher secondary students regarding Basic Life Support and socio personal variables. Hence the study concluded that the knowledge regarding Basic Life Support among higher Secondary students could be improved by structured teaching and demonstration.

 

KEYWORDS:  Effect, Structured teaching and demonstration, Knowledge, Higher secondary students, Basic Life Support.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

In human beings, all part have its own unique features and functions. Each functions of body system mutually depend on each other. Any deviation in the functioning of a system leads to alteration in health.

 

The heart is the center of cardiovascular system and it is vitally responsible for just about everything that gives life i.e, ranging from the transportation of oxygen to the success of the immune system.14

 

The rate of death of Cardiovasular disease in Kerala is 60% in males and 40% in female occur before the age of 65years. Another study conducted by Vinejet, evaluating the cardiac arrest in a sub population of India showed that there was an obvious lack of knowledge related to management of medical emergencies. The data from the study relieved that 39.89% had below average knowledge regarding BLS.5

 

CPR is indicated for any person unresponsive with no breathing or breathing only in occasional agonal gasps, as it is most likely that they are in cardiac arrest. If a person still has a pulse but is not breathing (respiratory arrest) artificial ventilation may be more appropriate.10

 

CPR oxygenates the body and brain for defibrillation and advanced life support. Even in the case of a “non shockable rhythm, such as pulseless electrical activity (PEA) where defibrillation is not indicated, effective CPR plays an important role.11

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

A study to assess the effect of structured teaching and demonstration on knowledge regarding Basic Life Support among higher secondary students studying in a selected schools of Kottayam.

 

OBJECTIVES:

1.    Assess the knowledge of higher secondary students on basic life support.

2.    Evaluate the effect of structured teaching and demonstration on knowledge of higher secondary students on basic life support.

3.    Find out the association between the pre-test knowledge of higher secondary students on basic life support and selected socio- personal variables.

 

HYPOTHESIS:

H1: There is a significant difference between mean pre-test and post-test knowledge score of higher secondary students regarding Basic life Support.

H2: There is a significant association between pre-test knowledge of higher secondary students regarding basic Life Support and selected socio-personl variables.

 

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Research approach:

A quantitative approach was used

 

Research design:

Pre test post test design was used

 

Research Variable:

There are two types of explanatory variables

a.   Independent variables: Structured teaching programme and demonstration

b.   Independent variable: Knowledge level on students on Basic Life Support

 

Socio personal variables:

It includes age, gender, place of living, education, stream of higher secondary education, previous knowledge regarding BLS, previous knowledge of providing BLS, presence of health care facility in the locality.

 

Setting:

The setting is where the population or the portion of it, being that is studied is located at the study is carried out. The study was conducted in M T Seminary Higher Secondary School, Kottayam. Total of 120students were studying in the Higher secondary section and 40 samples were taken from plus two commerce batch.

 

Population:

The study population comprises of all Higher Secondary students between the age group of 15-18 years.

 

Sample:

In this study, 30 higher secondary students including girls and boys from MT Seminary Higher Secondary school who met the inclusion criteria.

 

Sampling technique:

Purposive sampling technique is used to select the student who is among the 15-18 years of age. Purposive sampling is a type of non probability sampling method.

 

Criteria for sample selection:

Inclusion criteria:

a.   Students between the age group 15-18 years and studying in selected higher secondary school, Kottayam.

b.   Students who are able to read, write and understand English.

 

Exclusion Criteria:

a.   Students who are not willing to participate in the study.

b.   Students who are absent during the period of data collection.

 

Description of the tool:

Tool 1: Structured questionnaire:

Section A: Demographic Variables:

This section consist of eight items on demographic variables of the samples in relation to their age, gender, place of living, stream of higher secondary education, previous knowledge regarding BLS, previous knowledge providing BLS, presence of health care facility in the locality.

 

Section B: Knowledge questionnaire:

Knowledge questionnaire consists of 30 items which deals with knowledge related to Basic Life Support. Each items consisted of four options. The samples were instructed to tick in a box provided against each option. Each correct answer was given a score of one mark and incorrect answer was scored with zero. Minimum score is zero and maximum score is 30.

Data collection Process:

The study was started after getting formal permission from the Principal of M T Seminary Higher Secondary school. The data collected from 11th January 2020 to 17th January 2020 among 30 higher secondary Students. Informed consent was obtained from the participants, and also explains the purpose of the study. Pre-test was conducted among higher secondary students, by giving questionnaire to assess the knowledge of Basic life support, before implementation of structured teaching programme and demonstration. Immediately after pre- test, structured teaching programme and demonstration was given to the same students regarding Basic Life support and students also demonstrated. Evaluation was done by conducting post- test after seven days of implementation of structured teaching programme and demonstration. Post test was conducted by using the questionnaire.

 

RESULTS:

Table I: Frequency and percentage of distribution of samples based on socio personal variables such as age, gender, place of living, educational status and stream of higher secondary education.

Socio personal variables

Frequency

Percentage (%)

1. Age in years

1) 16

2) 17

3)18

 

17

12

1

 

56.66

40

3.33

2. Gender

1) Male

2) female

 

15

15

 

50

50

3. Place of Living

1) Urban

2) Rural

 

15

15

 

50

50

4. Educational status

1) Plus one

 

30

 

100

5. Stream of higher secondary education

1) Science

 

 

50

 

 

100

6. Previous knowledge regarding BLS

1) Yes

2) No

If Yes,

1) Media

2) Book

3) Relatives

4) friends

 

 

24

6

 

6

2

4

12

 

 

80

20

 

20

6.66

13.33

40

7. Previous experience of providing Basic Life Support

1) Yes

2) No

 

 

15

15

 

 

50

50

8. Presence of any health care facilities in the locality

1) Yes

2) No

 

 

26

4

 

 

86.66

13.33

 

Table 1 shows that Majority of the samples 56.66% were in the age group of 16 years and only 3.33% were in the age group of 18years.Half of the samples (50%) are males and 50% are females. It also shows that 50% of samples are lived in rural area and remaining 50% are living in urban area. All the participants are in 11 standard. It demonstrate that all students are in commerce batch. A large portion of the samples 80% have previous knowledge regarding BLS and remaining 20% doesn’t have previous knowledge regarding BLS.   A small portion of samples 15% have previous experience and 85% of samples doesn’t have previous experience.

 

Table 2:  Frequency and percentage of distribution of the Level of knowledge of higher secondary students regarding Basic Life Support

Level of knowledge

Frequency

Percentage

Pre-test

1) Good

2) Average

3) Poor

 

0

14

16

 

0

46.67

53.33

Post-test

1)Good

2) Average

3) Poor

 

19

11

0

 

63

37

0

 

Table 2 shows that the level of pre-test, more than half of the samples (53.33%) had poor knowledge regarding BLS and none of them had good knowledge regarding BLS. At the level of post-test, a large portion of the samples (63.33%) had good knowledge and none of them had poor knowledge.

 

Table 3: Effect of structured teaching and demonstration on knowledge of higher secondary students regarding Basic Life Support

Knowledge

Mean

Mean Difference

Standard Deviation

t value

Pre test

11.4

9.5

61.390

13.686

Post test

20.9

 

112.55

 

 

Table 3 shows that the mean pre- test knowledge score of the high secondary students regarding Basic Life Support was 11.4%. The mean post-test knowledge score of higher Secondary students regarding Basic Life support was 20.9%. The calculated ‘t’ value (13.69%) was greater than the table value (t29=2.05) and it was statistically significant at 0.05 level. The difference in means of pre- test knowledge score regarding Basic Life Support showed that structured teaching and demonstration was an effective intervention in increasing knowledge regarding BLS among higher secondary students, therefore the first hypothesis H01 was rejected.

 

Section IV: Association between pretest knowledge of higher secondary students on Basic Life support with socio- personal variables:

The obtained Chi square value between age, gender, place, stream of higher secondary education, previous knowledge regarding Basic Life Support, previous experience of providing Basic Life Support and also any health care facilities in your locality of higher secondary students with the pre test knowledge was found to be not significant at 0.05 levels. This shows that there was no significant association between knowledge regarding BLS and socio- personal variables.

 

DISCUSSION:

This Section the findings of the study discussed are as following:

 

Section I: Distribution of samples based on socio personal variables

The findings of the present study were comparable to the another study which proved that majority of them were second year college students and 64.8 % were females. The study also revealed that 20% had training in BLS program and 10.8%

 

Section II: Level of knowledge of higher secondary students regarding basic life support

The findings were comparable to the another study, where the pretest knowledge of students showed that 13.2% and then the post test score was 68% after two hours of BLS training programme.

 

Section III: Effect of structured teaching and demonstration on knowledge of higher secondary students regarding BLS

Comparison of scores before and after training testing, participants showed a significantly improved score resulting from training. This findings was consistent with the other studies that teaching Basic Life Support to school children, showed highly significant improvement in knowledge and retention of knowledge in basic life support after training.

 

Section IV: Association between knowledge level of higher secondary students regarding BLS with socio personal variables

The findings of another study are after two hours of basic life support training, participants had significantly improved sores (mean score 8.66 and 12.34, respectively, p<0.001). Thirty- three of the 250 participants (13.2%) passed the minimum score in before trained testing, whereas 170 of 250 participants (68%) passed the minimum score in after trained testing.

 

CONCLUSION:

The structured teaching programme and demonstration was found to be effective in improving knowledge of higher secondary students regarding Basic life support. The association between pretest knowledge regarding Basic Life Support and socio- personal variables was checked using chi square test and it was found that there was significant association between pretest knowledge of higher secondary students and selected socio personal variables at 0.05 level of significance. Hence the study concluded that the knowledge regarding basic life support could be improved by structured teaching programme and demonstration. The present study supports the hypothesis that there is a significant difference in the level of knowledge regarding Basic Life Support after structured teaching programme and demonstration.

 

NURSING IMPLICATION:

·      Nursing education: Nursing education is a means through which nurses are prepared for practice in various settings.

·      Basic Life support being an important subject in the nursing curriculum, should equip student nurses to play a major role in preventive and promotive aspects of cardiac patients.

·      Nurses educators have responsibility in upgrading the knowledge of students on cardiac emergencies.

 

Nursing Practice:

·      This study can be used as an information illustration for staff nurses working in cardiac unit. Nurses are the key providers of preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative services to society.

·      Providing knowledge helps in the prevention of diseases and its complications.

 

Nursing Research:

·      The study findings open the avenue for studying the knowledge in this area among common people especially youth.

·      More research can be done on BLS and the findings can be utilized effectively in preventing cardiac emergencies.

 

Nursing Administration:

·      Nursing has become a complex and highly varied descriptive profession with the rapid growing, well developed and well documented scientific and humanistic knowledge base.

·      The study findings signify the importance of formulating and implementing a structured education schedule on Basic life support by higher secondary students.

 

 

LIMITATIONS:

·      The study was dine on small group of samples so generalization is limited.

·      The study does not use any control group therefore there are possibilities of threats to internal validity.

·      Purposive sampling was used in the sample selection. Hence, it reduces the possibilities of generalization of findings.

·      Homogeneity of all subjects cannot be established.

 

 

RECOMMENDATION:

·      A study can be replicated in similar and different settings with large samples.

·      A similar study can be conducted with a control group.

·      More innovative strategies can be adopted in order to impart the knowledge to students.

·      More awareness programs regarding BLS should be launched by the government.

 

REFERENCE:

1.     Quotes of life, https://images.app.goo.gl/kpqN7

2.     Available at https://wikipedia.com

3.     Available at Taber, clerance WILDUR: Venes, Donald (2009) (Tabers Cyclopedia Medical Dictionan. F. A. Davscp.pp 1018- 1023

4.     www.who.int/news-room/ factshoot/detail/cvds

5.     Soman C R et..al, Journal of mortality and cvs morbidity and cvs morbidity in Kerala state of India.

6.     AHA guidelines update for CPR & Emergency cardiovascular care (eu) ceegguidelines. heart org/circulation cpr-ecc-guidelines

7.     www. Webmed.com, webMD Medical reference, reviewed by Janesbackerman, MD, FAC

8.     www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic life supports

9.     Field J M et. al. Nov.2010. Part 1 Executive Summary, 2010 AHA guidelines CPR & ECE

10.   Sarver Heart Centre ‘Frequently asked ques about chest compression only CPR, archived from the original on 2013-10-19.

11.   Roshana S, Batajook, Piryani R, Basic Life Support, Knowledge and attitude of medical/ paramedical professionals, World J E Mary Med. 2012 : 3(2):141.

12.   Chandrasekran S, Kumar S, Bhat S A, Awareness of Basic Life Support among medical, dental, nursing students and doctors.  Indian J. Aneesh. 2010, 54(2): 121

13.   www.wikipedia.org/heart& its function

14.   Zabeer Hussain, Haquer Zeba. Awareness about BLS (CPR) among medical student status and requirements. Journal of the Pakisthan Medical Association. 59(1): 57-59

15.   Choudhary P, A study to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching among nursing students regarding BLS in selected college of Nursing, Ludhiana, Punjab. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science. 2018; 7(6).

 



 

Received on 30.06.2023        Modified on 23.07.2023

Accepted on 26.08.2023       ©A&V Publications All right reserved

A and V Pub IntJ. of Nursing and Medical Res. 2023; 2(3):85-89.

DOI: 10.52711/ijnmr.2023.20